Cognitive processes in using learning strategies used in teaching foreign languages
The article discusses one of the pedagogical advantages of the cognitive approach to teaching languages – the use of learning strategies. The role of learning strategies in the cognitive theory of language learning is to determine possible results of conscious learning or possible reasons for productive early stages of learning. Anderson, the developer of the cognitive theory, talks about the ways information is stored in memory, distinguishes between “static” information, which is some kind of a fact, and “dynamic” information, which is the knowledge the ways of doing things. Thus, “static” information constitutes declarative knowledge, while “dynamic” information forms procedural knowledge. Analyzing the theory presented by Anderson, we came to a similar conclusion: that learning strategies are effective in teaching foreign languages, as they require a conscious and deliberate choice of an algorithm of solving problems which, after repeated use, turns into skills. The article provides theoretical justification of the effectiveness of learning strategies from the point of cognitive theory, as well as identifies possible challenges in learning strategies and offers feasible solutions that are scientifically sound and validated by scientists.
Keywords: learning strategy, declarative/procedural knowledge, cognitive theory.